By Herman L. Bennett
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Extra info for Africans in Colonial Mexico: Absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole Consciousness, 1570-1640
In fact, the initial cultural exposure that many indigenous peoples experienced during the sixteenth century rarely emanated directly from those individuals de¤ned as Spaniards. With the exception of the itinerant pig farmer and the occasional priest, most contact—physical and cultural—took place between Spanish-speaking Africans and Amerindians. Moreover, this interaction between Africans and Amerindians increased after midcentury when recent arrivals from Africa arrived on the rural estates, where they worked alongside indigenous persons.
65 Six years later, however, enslaved mulattos ascended into the majority among the slave population while free mulattos rivaled and gradually eclipsed enslaved Africans as laborers. Despite new African arrivals, natural reproduction ensured that mulattos retained their primacy among Tehuantepec’s slave labor force. 66 Despite these indices of growth, the decline of the slave population was irreversible. By the third decade of the seventeenth century, a permanent free mulatto majority had emerged on the Tehuantepec estates that, together with the indigenous laborers, comprised the bulk of the workforce.
Did . . ”5 “The Grand Remedy” 35 Innocent acknowledged that the law of nations had supplanted natural law in regulating human interaction such as trade, con®ict, and social hierarchies. Similarly, the prince replaced the father as the “lawful authority in society” through God’s provenance, manifesting his dominion in the monopoly over justice and sanctioned violence. As did the ancient Israelites in selecting Saul as king, all “rational creatures” were entitled to elect their rulers—a right which in the Old Testament was not predicated on living in a state of grace.
Africans in Colonial Mexico: Absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole Consciousness, 1570-1640 by Herman L. Bennett