By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This publication is the main complete reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken through nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. according to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than a hundred and fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar comprises the main whole description up to now of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical remedy of word constitution, be aware order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams in the course of the Indian elimination of the 1830s. this present day the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few young children communicate the language. even if extra childrens one of the Mississippi Choctaws research the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is key to holding the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely vital. Compiled by way of the prime scholarly specialist at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic advisor to local audio system and an essential instruction manual for linguists.
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There is a n exception for verbs of the shape VCV, however. '6 The pattern for rhythmic lengthening in nouns is similar. ] 1~111-grandfather 'my grandfather'8 Speakers vary on whether rythmic lengthening applies after I1 prefixes in nouns. For some speakers, the rule is not applicable in cases like the following: 5. As discussed below, speakers vary in whether rhythmic lengthening applies before -tok. 6. Imabi, literally 'kill to him/her/them', is an idiom meaning 'beat, defeat'. 7. Some speakers also seem to have a nasal vowel in the possessed form of ofi', which is then im&'.
1. In this structure, an external temporal adverb occurs as a daughter of IP, but is freely ordered with respect to other daughters of IP. 3. Proforms There are proforms which correspond to a verb plus its object, but not to a verb plus its subject. Yohmih is a pro-verb that means 'be so' or 'do so'. It replaces a VP, and it is not possible to leave VP-internal material behind, as the following examples show: (51a) John-at sa-yoppkchi-kmg, Bill-ak-kia yohmi-h. ' (51b) *John-at a-yoppkchi-kmg Bill-ak-kia sa-yohmi-h.
Ilha-h! ' Colons are also used for portmanteau morphemes and for stems which appear in a derived grade (chapter 6) as in the following examples: (6) Hattak-mat pisokpolo-h. man-D:NM ugly-TNS 'That man is ugly. ' (7) Ohdba-na nittak pdkkooli-h oshta-ttooh. ' When a Choctaw compound corresponds to a single English gloss, the parts of the compound are separated by =, a s in the following example: (8) Holisso '=pisaachiJ si-ya-h. ' Outside the examples, Choctaw words and morphemes are cited in italics.
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD